As we’ve talked about in previous videos the Articles of Confederation proves to be too weak in terms of a central government. For all laws made, in pursuance of this constitution, are the supreme lay of the land, and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of the different states to the contrary notwithstanding. The United States includes a variety of climates. Menu Skip to content. If this be not the cases, there will be a constant clashing of opinions and the representatives of one part will be continually striving against those of the other. In a republic, the manners, sentiments, and interests of the people should be similar.

Perhaps this country never saw so critical a period in their political concerns. History furnishes no example of a free republic, anything like the extent of the United States. It depicts Clio, the muse of History, holding a book in which she records events as they unfold. But if, on the other hand, this form of government contains principles that will lead to the subversion of liberty — if it tends to establish a despotism, or, what is worse, a tyrannic aristocracy; then, if you adopt it, this only remaining asylum for liberty will be [shut] up, and posterity will execrate your memory. This is the true criterion between a free government and an arbitrary one. Let us now proceed to inquire, as I at first proposed, whether it be best the thirteen United States should be reduced to one great republic, or not?

Brutus October 18, Ajti-federalist powers given by this article are very general britus comprehensive, and it may receive a construction to justify the passing almost any law. And are by this clause invested with the power of making all laws, proper and necessaryfor carrying all these into execution; and they may so exercise this power as entirely to annihilate all the state governments, and reduce this country to one single government.

The Anti-Federalist Papers: Brutus I | Tara Ross

If the constitution, offered to [your acceptance], be a wise one, calculated to preserve the invaluable blessings of liberty, to secure the inestimable rights anti-federalits mankind, anti-fwderalist promote human happiness, anti-ederalist, if you accept it, you will lay a lasting foundation of happiness for millions yet unborn; generations to come will rise up and call you blessed.

In a republic, the manners, sentiments and interests of the people should be similar. A free republic will never keep a standing army to execute its laws. If the people are to give their assent to anti-federalit laws, by persons chosen and appointed by them, the manner of the choice and the number chosen, must be such, as to possess, be disposed, and consequently qualified to declare the sentiments of the people; for if they do not know, or are not disposed to speak the sentiments of the people, the people do not govern, but the sovereignty is in a few.

The powers of the general legislature extend to every case that is of the least anti-federaliet — there is nothing valuable anti-fwderalist human nature, nothing dear to freemen, but what is within its power.


You may solace yourselves with the idea, that society, in this favored land, will fast advance to the highest point of perfection; the human mind will expand in knowledge and virtue, and the golden age be, in some measure, realized. When the public is called to investigate and decide upon a question in which not only the present members of the community are deeply interested, but upon which the happiness and misery of generations yet unborn is in great measure suspended, the benevolent mind cannot help feeling itself peculiarly interested in the result.

Brutud, to the founding fathers, the idea of a republic was really a representative democracy and Brutus here is questioning, look, if you’re governing over such a vast essah, can you have a representation that will truly speak the sentiments of the people and if you do have true representation of the people, well, are you going summray have so many representatives and so many interests that they’re not going to zummary able to govern?

Various expedients have been proposed to remedy these evils, but none have succeeded. The Grecian republics were of small extent; so also was that of the Romans. The body of the people being attached, the government will always be sufficient to support and execute its laws, and to operate upon the fears of any faction which may be opposed to it, not only to prevent an opposition to the execution of the laws themselves, but also to compel the most of them to aid the magistrate; but the people will not be likely to have such confidence in their rulers, in a republic so extensive as the United States, as necessary for these purposes.

In a pure democracy the people are the sovereign, and their will is declared by themselves; for this purpose they must all come together to deliberate, and decide.

Brutus (Antifederalist)

Anti-fedearlist by this consideration, I have been induced to offer my thoughts upon the present important crisis of our public affairs. Besides, it is a truth confirmed by the unerring experience of ages, that every man, and every body of men, invested with power, are ever disposed to increase it, and to acquire a superiority over every thing that stands in their way.

If we apply this remark to the condition of the United States, we shall be convinced that it forbids that we should be one government. Perhaps this country never saw so critical a period in their political concerns.

anti-federalist essay brutus #1 summary

In every free government, the people must give their assent to the laws by which they are governed. When these are attended with great honor and emolument, as they always will be in large states, so as greatly to interest men to pursue them, and to be proper objects for ambitious and designing men, such men will be ever restless in their pursuit after them.


The essays were widely reprinted and commented on throughout the American states.

anti-federalist essay brutus #1 summary

If the constitution, offered to your acceptance, be a wise one, calculated to preserve the invaluable blessings of liberty, to ##1 the inestimable rights of mankind, and promote human happiness, then, if you accept it, you will lay a lasting foundation brtus happiness for millions yet unborn; generations to come will rise up and call you blessed.

The magistrates in every government must be supported in the execution of the laws, either by an armed force, maintained at the public expense for that purpose; or by the people turning out to aid the magistrate upon his command, in case of resistance. This government is to possess absolute and uncontroulable summarry, legislative, executive and judicial, with respect to every object to which it extends, for by the last clause of section 8th, article 1st, it is declared “that the Congress shall have power to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution, in beutus government of the United States; or in any department or office thereof.

A free republic will never keep a standing army to execute its laws. The confidence which the people have in their rulers, in a free republic, arises from their knowing them, from their being responsible to them for their conduct, and from the power they have of displacing them when they misbehave: It is as much one complete government as that of New-York or Massachusetts, anti-federaist as absolute and perfect powers to make and execute all laws, to appoint officers, institute courts, declare offences, and annex penalties, with respect to every object to which it extends, as any other in the world.

Anti-Federalists and Brutus No. 1

So far therefore as its powers reach, all ideas of confederation are given up and lost. Their summaty and habits differ as much as their climates and productions; and their sentiments are by no means coincident. In other words, it is impossible to create one set of national laws to govern one big, diverse country!

This page was last edited on 27 Januaryat These might not seem like big numbers now, the United States is today over times bigger but this was already quite a bit larger than say just ancient Athens. This disposition, which is implanted in human nature, will amti-federalist in the federal legislature to lessen and anti-fedwralist to subvert the state authority, and having such advantages, will most certainly succeed, if the federal government succeeds at all.

With these few introductory remarks I shall proceed to a consideration of this constitution: