But the proposition itself cannot be scientifically proven! But there seems to be another hidden assumption which is a little bit more subtle. Consciousness is not a physical thing; it is not contained in any cell or biological structure. What would you want to have done differently if you were given the chance to go back? Therefore, the need for reconciliation is not entirely necessary. However, a little reflection exposes it as a false dilemma. This contention has arisen due to the apparent observations in the quantum vacuum, that sub-atomic events behave spontaneously without any causes.

International Institute of Islamic Thought. Science is commonly thought to just involve a method or a set of steps that one has to take to ensure the results of an experiment or theory are scientific. The statement presumes scientism to be the only way of establishing facts or sound conclusions. The universe with objective moral values does exist; 3. There are various arguments to justify the above claim.

How, by just viewing these neurological happenings, can we appreciate what that experience is like?

hamza tzortzis essay

Existentialists such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus understood the meaningless reality of life in absence of acknowledging the intention of our existence. This form of empiricism faces a whole host of logical problems.

By answering these two questions, the problem is solved. This brings us to briefly address scientific consensus. Even the neo-atheists have failed to come to terms with the nature of consciousness or its source, because no physical explanation is coherent enough to convince.


One of the greatest challenges to the human intellect has been to explain how the complex, improbable appearance of design in the universe arises. He observed that some of these stars were further away than initially anticipated, and that their colour was slightly changed, shifting towards red, something now known as red-shift.

However, a little reflection exposes it as a false dilemma. One of His names is The-Wise. Thirdly, theism has greater explanatory power.

Although it is not the scope of this response to discuss the technicalities and shortcomings of these empirical theories, none of them comprehensively address the hard problem of consciousness. Firstly it answers a question that none of the existing views have answered: Science is commonly thought to just involve a method or a set of steps that one has to take to ensure the results of an experiment or theory are scientific.

One thing that we can be sure of is that the self cannot be explained biologically or chemically.

hamza tzortzis essay

University of Chicago Press. Dawkins seems to attribute all the negative and evil things to religion. Part of this is to be tested with trials. These models however still have principles that necessitate a beginning to the universe, in other words they are non-infinitely extendable into the past.

Fifthly, theism explains our ability to have subjective conscious tzortzs and the fact that we have an awareness of what it is to be like ourselves, experiencing tastes, sounds and textures.

Most of what we know is based on the say-so of others. Applying the concepts developed by Kuhn hxmza Feyerabend, we can see that evolution also faces some theoretical problems, and therefore cannot be considered as certain.


What epistemic status does revelation have?

hamza tzortzis essay

I’m a New Muslim. In quantum theory the vacuum is a field of energy pervading the whole of the universe.

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Here are some examples of deductive arguments: Show mercy to those who are on earth and the One Who is in heaven will show mercy to you. Nigel Warburton [6], and more recently I have had a very warm and nuanced exchange with Professor Peter Simons. Strong induction moves from the particular to the general in a way that makes a conclusion for the whole group. How else can the self, which is an entity with a capacity to reflect and experience, manifest itself?

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For instance in the s David Bohm showed there was an alternative formulation of quantum theory that is fully deterministic in its basic structure. Moreland summarises this point: However, nothingness as defined by some physicists relates to the quantum vacuum. Eseay we think and perceive, there is a whir of information processing, but there is also a subjective aspect… This subjective aspect is experience.

Type-C materialism claims that there is a deep epistemic gap between physical and subjective conscious states.