Widely distributed in central, western and southern regions of India; grown in deciduous and evergreen forests of central, western and southern regions of India. The record of this marine inundation is preserved in the landward extension of the offshore basin since a major part of it was subsiding. Preservation of fossil wood and sub fossil logs is directly related to the sediments in which they are found. Archived from the original on 21 May Vembanad Kottayam Wood 1. Retrieved 1 July Awasthi N, Srivastava R Neogene flora of Kerala coast and its palaeoecological and phytogeographical implications.

Packing cases and boxes; match splints [45]. The occurrence of subfossil logs and carbonized woods in the sediments associated with the wetlands and river bank deposits, demonstrates clearly that the forest vegetation succumbed almost entirely to the coastal dynamics of the Early Holocene 9—7. Port-related activity is low mainly due to the underdevelopment of ports. Most of the genera occur in forest under storey where their fruits, leaves etc. College for Women, Our History”. Soman K Geology of Kerala.

The studied wood samples have yielded ages that fall mainly into two groups. Subsequently it would have risen further by 2—4 m until about yrs BP, and then receded to the present level.

karamana river thesis

This compactness entails that wood resists decay and survives on land or in water for a considerably long period before fossilization. Investigations have pointed out that the drowned boat excavated by archeologists at Thaikkal was constructed from the wood of A. Vettiyar, Alappuzha district Wood 2.


karamana river thesis

MohandasBhaskar Pillai and Padmanabhan Prasanth. Ceiling boards, window frames; general purpose Class I plywood; furniture and cabinets; block boards; match splints and boxes; boat and shipbuilding; bobbins; bentwood articles. Anatomical details of Neolamarckia sp.

Native to parts of South and Southeast Asia, and believed to have originated in the southwestern rain forests of India; in present day, Kerala, coastal Karnataka and Maharashtra.

The combination of all these characters indicates that the fossil belongs to genus Dipterocarpus Gaertn. Besides acting as a carbon sink, the wetlands can also serve as a source of carbon, in that they may supply significant amounts of carbon to adjacent coastal ecosystems. Such evidence indicates that these fossils did not drift too far from their place of origin, and hence are of considerable significance in determining vegetation characteristics in the catchments.

Grows well in full sun in clay, loam, sandy, and acidic soil types, with a high drought and aerosol salt wind-borne salt as found in coastal area resistance.

Tangential longitudinal section showing bordered, alternate hexagonal intervessel pits. The few reports in recent years on the rivdr fossil logs in katamana wetlands and their utility in environment karamnaa culture appraisal, have been sporadic and few [5][13][33][45][46].

Quaternary Science Reviews 23 1—2: This paucity can be attributed to the lack of information on datable tree-rings of fossil, and modern woods from Indian subcontinent. Suitable for plywood and veneer, container flooring, general construction work, railway sleepers, bridges, harbor work, wagons, truck bodies etc. Of the five tribes of Moraceae, the genus Artocarpus Forster J.


Most of the genera occur in forest under storey where their fruits, leaves etc. The land between the Sahyadri escarpment and tgesis present coast is very narrow. Gregarious along the intertidal estuarine regions of mangrove forests, often as a pioneer species on newly formed mudflats; Marine Used for paper pulp, matches, and as poles [45].

Retrieved 6 December Worbes M Structural and other adaptations to long-term flooding by trees in Central Amazonia.

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Kerala Footprint Focus Guide illustrated ed. The characteristic features of the fossil wood are: V K Prasanth [2].

karamana river thesis

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. In India, the fossil history of genus Dipterocarpus traces back to Lower Miocene, and a large number of fossils of different plant parts are recorded from different Neogene exposures. This is particularly seen in the seasonal wetlands peripheral to the two main lagoonal water bodies namely thseis Vembanad and Kayamkulam lagoons [60][64]. This article is about the city. Vembanad Kottayam Wood 1.


Fossil logs unearthed during clay mining for brick making. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Journal of Asian Earth Sciences