Fuels include diesel and saw dust. A, B, and C. CAN consisted of AN combined with dolomitic limestone a blend of calcium and magnesium carbonate. Based on this trend, the committee chose to cast a wider net, by looking at precursor chemicals that can be used to manufacture VBIEDs or PBIEDs, and further prioritized the precursors using three criteria: They utilised a wide range of colours, sometimes even bright hues that seem counter-intuitive from a camouflage viewpoint. Its stealthy nature allows the S VBIED driver to blend in with civilian traffic and to get as close as possible to the intended target before detonating.
This supplemental handbook presents several terrorist incidents using a case study methodology. According to the news the car bomb exploded outside a Bank of Greece building in the heart of Athens Thursday, causing damage but no injuries. The Hellenic Arms Control Center , simulated the explosion of 75 kilograms of ANFO on the same ground zero in order to assess the claim of the terrorists. The first chemical PIRA used to produce HME mixtures and replace dynamite was sodium chlorate, a strong oxidizer used as a weed killer. Page 30 Share Cite. The committee placed chemicals that met the conditions of a higher priority for three criteria in Group A; for two criteria in Group B; and for one criterion in Group C.
By removing precursor chemicals used only in very small amounts and ubiquitous materials, such as food products, the committee narrowed the list of chemicals under consideration to just 28 chemicals, the short list. Moreover, this list also cawe not reflect the use of IEDs in active military theaters.
Page 23 Share Cite. There has been a considerable rise in casualties from such attacks over the last six years. Aspects discussed vbjed, such as the safety and commonality of the chemicals, were considered for this analysis i. IS — at least up until recently — ran a network of S VBIED manufacturing workshops divided on a provincial level and tasked with supplying each province Wilayah across the territories it controlled.
IS are an exceptional case though. Page 29 Share Cite.
Page 27 Share Cite. This shows that they have a good understanding of how explosive forces work and that they are actively seeking to increase the effectiveness of the S VBIEDs they manufacture.
The evolution of Suicide Car Bombs examined | AOAV
In such an explosion the following overpressures and damage radii would ensue shudy ground zero At a distance of meters an overpressure of 0. Acetone is slightly less common than household fuels such as kerosene, but its use in academia and chemical processes makes it one of the most ubiquitous general solvents in the world. First, it was judged impractical to control very small amounts of any particular precursor chemical and, for this reason, precursor chemicals used only to construct charges for detonators e.
The first chemical PIRA used to produce HME mixtures and replace vbbied was sodium chlorate, a strong oxidizer used as stjdy weed killer. Limitations of precursor availability also dictate usage, independent of the properties of the explosives they can make; some chemicals are simply not available in large quantities.
Every exercise in prioritization, including this winnowing process, has an inherent degree of subjectivity. Page 31 Share Cite.
Of the two, urea is much more commonly available than nitric acid, and the only explosive xase can be used to produce is urea nitrate. This is true not only for the conflicts in Syria and Iraq, but can also be applied to other conflicts where a non-state actor using S VBIEDs gains territorial control.
CAN consisted of AN combined with dolomitic limestone a blend of calcium and magnesium carbonate. These are not the only possible charges for each use-case. On the other hand, an up-armored SVBIED are based on military and civilian vehicles, which are overhauled with metal plates welded to the front and sides of the vehicle.
Continuous reevaluation of the precursors is encouraged by the committee, as some of the rankings may change over time with an evolving threat environment. Thus, the risk of either scenario might rate concern when both severity and probability are included in the sutdy. Once the solid was filtered out, the remaining liquid could be driven off to isolate nearly pure AN. These are vehicles driven to and detonated near a given target.
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The committee concentrated its efforts on Group A chemicals when examining the supply chains and existing controls, both discussed in Chapter 3. The remainder of the groups shown in Figure include bomb builders in the Iraq and Afghanistan caxe as well as the newer factions encountered with the rise of ISIS and other extremists. To generate a more-focused short list csae precursor chemicals, the committee considered two variables: Page 34 Share Cite.
The original document contains color images.
The idea is to increase the chances of the SVBIED being able to reach the intended point of detonation, and it vibed typically used on targets considered to be especially difficult.
All of these groups use precursor chemicals to produce their HME charges. Between the s anda series of larger vehicle bombs emerged in terrorist attacks with main charges in the thousands of pounds range, but in the. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. The safety distance from such an explosion would be meters shown on the satellite map as a yellow circular zone aroung ground zero.
The committee produced a list of selected explosives incidents, both realized and thwarted, starting with the Sterling Hall Bombing at the University of Wisconsin Table